The term whitework embroidery has covered a large range of techniques through the years. A basic description would be that it is white stitching on white fabric, but that wouldn't really do it justice.
Whether it is delicate Hollie Point on a baby's bonnet, intricate Reticella (as shown in the photo) or a cushion cover worked in Hardanger, there is a style to suit all.
In Richelieu and cutwork embroidery, the fabric is cut and removed in some areas, while in other techniques the fabric threads are pulled together.
Eventually they realized that they didn't even need fabric! The stitches themselves form the fabric in techniques such as needlelace which is also known as "punto in aria", which literally translates from the Italian into "stitches in the air".
The links below will take you to the relevant sections on this page.
Learn a number of stitches and techniques in my free sampler...
Band 1 - Do the first filling stitch
Band 2 - Drawn thread work
Band 3 covers Pulled satin stitch and double back stitch
Band 4 introduces diamond eyelet stitch and double backstitch leaves
Band 5 - practice pulled satin stitch and also learn honeycomb stitch
Band 6 - learn three sided stitch and ringed back stitch
Band 7 - diagonal four sided stitch finishes off the sampler
The term drawn thread work relates to a form of whitework embroidery where a number of evenly woven fabric threads are removed and the remainder are grouped together in clusters forming solid and open areas in a design.
Decorative hemstitching can be worked if the threads are removed in one direction only, for edges or insertions.
It is also possible to remove threads in both directions and bind the remaining threads together to form a grid that can then be further embellished with stitching such as needleweaving or darning. The resulting area is known as a withdrawn ground.
After the 17th century it was often used on baby garments such as caps or bonnets and christening gowns or blankets.
See the link to Band 2 in the sampler above for a free tutorial on drawn thread work.
Also known as drawn fabric or pulled work, this form of whitework embroidery does not rely on removing threads but rather moving them.
The stitches pull the threads into bunches allowing the holes formed to make the patterns.
Pulled work is not as effective when worked with coloured threads as the stitches themselves are not meant to be seen.
Hardanger embroidery is named after the area in Norway where it originated.
This form of needlework uses pulled and drawn thread techniques with the addition of satin stitch motifs. The areas where the fabric threads have been removed, are wrapped or needlewoven and lacy filling stitches are worked in the gaps.
Traditionally hardanger embroidery was used to decorate aprons, clothing and household linens. Modern hardanger often uses colour and can be effective stitched this way.
My hardanger patterns can be found by clicking the link.
As I mentioned earlier, needlelace followed on from the early whitework embroidery techniques. Although lace is traditionally white, modern day needlelace can be worked in many colors.
Using simple buttonhole stitches it is possible to create gossamer fine needlelace or padded pieces that have the look of carved ivory.
Cutwork embroidery was the forerunner to later needle made laces. It seems to have first been mentioned in 12th Century chronicles when it was worked by nun's and kept secret from the general public. In those times it was used on priests sacramental robes and on grave cloths for saints.
During the 15th to 17th Century's upper class ladies took up creating cutwork. In addition to making alter cloths as gifts for the church, they also used it to decorate their fine linens.
The original cutwork techniques expanded and became the basis of various other techniques.
Richelieu was based on the early cutwork embroidery and was popular between the 14th and 16th centuries. Designs consisted of shapes, outlined in buttonhole stitch with bars crossing the open areas cut away between them. The bars were again covered with buttonhole stitch with the addition of picots or tiny loops midway.
This form of whitework embroidery was often used for tablecloths or mantlepiece edgings, where a coloured fabric was attached behind the work to show up the open areas.
A sturdy form of embroidery, it stood up to washing well and pieces still survive today.
Richelieu was superseeded by Reticella, which was apparently also known as Greek Point.
It was the first of the needlelaces with the fabric only used as a support whilst working. Threads were laid across a pattern, couched in place and then overcast or buttonhole stitches were worked over them, decorated with picots.
It is considered to be the most beautiful type of needlework, but does take time to construct.
Reticella was again used for altar cloths, church vestments and also as starched trimmings to the ruffs that were in fashion between the 15th and 17th centuries.
The photograph, above, is a piece of modern Reticella stitched by Jenny Bargh from Sydney, Australia. Jenny adapted a pattern she found in an Italian magazine "Rakam" to make this gorgeous example of the technique.
Jenny has her own blog at http://jennysaustralianneedleart.blogspot.com where you can see more of her work. She kindly agreed to let me showcase her work here for you. Thank you Jenny.
Another whitework embroidery technique popular in the middle ages, hollie point, or holy point, was also worked by nun's. It was originally used for church laces and it often included sacred emblems such as Adam and Eve or lillies.
Worked in Hollie stitch, which is a buttonhole stitch with an extra twist, the pattern was formed by the spaces between stitches somewhat reminiscent of filet crochet.