Embroidery fabric
for counted thread projects

Buying embroidery fabric for cross stitch, blackwork or any other counted thread technique can be difficult if you are new to the craft. You will see terms like Aida (left), evenweave (center) and linen (right) online, but how do you tell the difference?

The confusion isn't made any easier by the fact that many embroiderers call all evenweave fabrics (other than Aida) linen.

Real linen is made from flax and is lovely to work on but can be expensive. Other evenweave fabrics sold for counted thread work are often made of cotton or a mixture of fibres. We will look at some of them in more detail below the video, or you can use the links in the table below to check them out straight away.

Fabric type Counts Uses
Aida 11 - 22 count Cross stitch, Blackwork
Hardanger 22 count Cross stitch, Blackwork, Hardanger
Linen 25 - 36 count Cross stitch, Blackwork, Hardanger, Pulled work, Bargello, Petit Point
Evenweaves 18 - 32 count Cross stitch, Blackwork, Hardanger, Pulled Work, Bargello, Petit Point

What does "count" mean?

Cloth woven for counted thread embroidery has an even number of threads in each direction. The "count" refers to how many threads are used in each inch. You may see it written as 14ct or 14 HPI which means 14 threads to the inch. An easy way to think of it is that it tells you how many stitches you can squeeze into an inch of fabric, therefore a bigger number means that each stitch has to be smaller so as to fit more of them in.

This knowledge can prove useful if you have a pattern you wish to stitch, but it would turn out slightly too big for a frame you have at hand, if stitched on the recommended embroidery fabric. For example if your design is 140 stitches wide it will measure 10 inches on 14 count, or 8.75 inches if you swap to an 18 count cross stitch fabric.

It is important to use the correct sized needle when working on evenweave fabrics. I give some suggestions on my embroidery needles page.

Don't want to do the calculations yourself? Use this free handy cross stitch calculator to do it for you!

Aida counted cross stitch fabric

Aida is known as a block weave. Bunches of cotton threads are grouped together with clearly defined holes showing in the corners of each block.

This makes it an ideal embroidery fabric for beginners to use.

One drawback of Aida, however, is that the blocks are obvious in the background of a design. It can also be difficult to pierce the centre of a block when working fractional stitches.

Aida is available in 11, 14, 16, 18 and 22 count. The most popular of these tends to be 14 count.

I find 18 is getting just a little too difficult to see for comfortable stitching now the years are catching up with me. Time for a little magnification!

Hardanger fabric

Hardanger, or Oslo, is also a 100% cotton block weave. It has 22 threads to the inch which lay in pairs. The holes are less obvious than in Aida.

As well as being used for Hardanger this material can be used for cross stitch and blackwork. Cross stitch can be worked over 2 blocks, effectively creating an 11 count fabric.


If I can afford it I love to use pure linen, a durable, single thread fabric woven from flax.

Due to the nature of the fibre, fabrics made from linen can have bumps or "slubs" which make them more difficult to work on. Some linens are quite loosely woven, causing threads carried across the back of the work to be easily visible from the front. Some well known linens are:

Other evenweave embroidery fabrics


Lugana is an evenly woven cross stitch fabric composed of 52% cotton and 48% viscose. It comes in different counts and cross stitch is normally worked over two threads. If you haven't tried this yet, check this page for instructions on how to stitch on evenweaves and linen.


Jobelan is made from 51% cotton and 49% modal. It is a soft, 28 or 32 count evenweave, with a slight sheen that is ideal for stitching table linens or cushions (pillows) as it hangs well and is easy to wash.

Annabelle cross stitch fabric

If you like the look of linen with its uneven slubs you may also enjoy stitching on Annabelle. It is made from 100% cotton with thick and thin threads which give it the linen-like effect.

Want another option?

How about if you want to cross stitch on a garment that is not made of an evenweave material? Well there is a way around that! You can use what is known as "waste canvas".

This is a grid of threads that you baste onto the garment where you want to stitch a cross stitch or blackwork motif. You then work through the waste canvas and the garment fabric. When the design is complete you wet the canvas and it can then be pulled out thread by thread with tweezers, leaving the design sitting on the garment.

If you fancy learning more, and seeing photos of the process, be sure to check out my waste canvas page.


Still confused about embroidery fabric?

This is the place to ask your questions about what fabric to use? How to take care of it? How to stitch on it, etc.

[ ? ]

Do you have a picture that would help people answer your question?[ ? ]


Click here to upload more images (optional)

Author Information (optional)

To receive credit as the author, enter your information below.

(first or full name)

(e.g., City, State, Country)

Submit Your Contribution

 submission guidelines.

(You can preview and edit on the next page)

Can you help answer other people's questions?

Click below to see what other visitors to this page have asked...

Choosing the right embroidery fabric 
Why does a design say to stitch it on a #14 f(or 16 or 11, etc.) fabric? Can't I stitch on any fabric I like? Like, on a garment that I want to decorate …

Best fabric for a mix of cross stitch and embroidery 
I have been cross stitching on Aida for a while now and I am keen to try out some other fabric types. I have some of my own designs (I create custom …

An alternative to 11 count Aida? 
I am cross stitching a wedding template for my son. The design is set for 14 ct aida which produces a 9.5 X 7.5 inch design. I would like the design …

Particles on evenweave when unpicking stitches 
Question: I recently bought evenweave fabric for the first time and tried cross-stitch on it. However, as I progressed on the stitches, I found that …

Fabric for beads 
Question: I am wondering what fabric to use for beading. It would be embroidery with beads, its a pretty big project. I am looking for fabric that won't …

Fabric/thread conversion 
Question: Help please. I have a project and the pattern call for 32 ct linen using two strands of floss over two threads. I am going to stitch this project …

laundering embroidery fabric 
Question: Am I supposed to wash the aida cloth before I start my cross stitch project? It is often so stiff I can hardly get the hoop around it! …

I have holes or tears in my fabric. 
Question: I have been stitching for years, have always used 14 count or maybe 11 count. Lately I have had a tear or hole in my fabric after weeks …

Using a different count evenweave fabric? Not rated yet
hi, I have been following your fantastic Hardanger tutorials and I achieved really good results, thanks to your very clear instructions. It's definitely …

Stitching on even weave linen Not rated yet
I just purchased a pattern that is calling for stitch on 32 count, (I don't know what that means) Misty blue linen. I could not find this, so i purchased …

Click here to write your own.


New! Comments

Have your say about what you just read! Leave me a comment in the box below.

Recent Articles

  1. Blackwork Christmas Designs that stitch up quickly

    Sep 26, 16 07:47 AM

    Simple blackwork Christmas designs to download and stitch for cards, coasters or decorations. Choose from star, bell, robin or blackwork angel patterns

    Read More

  2. This free assisi pattern will help you learn the technique

    Sep 17, 16 11:16 AM

    Learn long armed cross stitch whilst working this free assisi pattern.

    Read More

  3. Learn 2 variations of Fishbone Stitch, flat and raised

    Sep 13, 16 06:38 PM

    Learn 2 types of Fishbone stitch to add to your range of basic embroidery stitches

    Read More